Farro is an ethnobotanical term for three species of hulled wheat: spelt (Triticum spelta), emmer (Triticum dicoccum), and einkorn (Triticum monococcum). Hulled wheat is wheat that cannot be threshed. In Italian cuisine, the three species are sometimes distinguished as farro grande, farro medio, and farro piccolo. In French the three species are sometimes distinguished as grand épeautre, moyen épeautre and petit épeautre — épeautre being French for spelt.
Emmer is by far the most common variety of farro grown in Italy, specifically in certain mountain regions of Tuscany and Abruzzo. It is also considered to be of higher quality for cooking than the other two grains and thus is sometimes called “true” farro. Spelt is much more commonly grown in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.